What are common gum diseases?

Gum disease

Definition and facts of Gum Disease or Gum Health

When periodontal (gum) disease develops, bacteria in plaque accumulate along the gum line.

In conclusion, gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss in adults. The gums or gingiva are an important barrier to protect our teeth and their surrounding support structures. In brief, periodontology is the dental specialty that studies these support structures and the gum diseases and conditions related to them.

Alt text=gum disease
Gum disease

For the most part, one of the main causes of gum problems is bacteria in dental plaque (cavities). Generally, bacteria in plaque produce harmful toxins that create inflammatory processes that occur in the gum tissue. Such as if bacterial plaque is not treated early it causes damage to the teeth and gums.

Poor teeth health can lead to a variety of mouth problems and diseases, for example:

  • Heart disease, which can be fatal if not treated.
  • Jawbone deterioration that can not is recovered.
  • Infections
  • Dry mouth
  • Tooth decay
  • Strong, healthy teeth are dependent on healthy gums.

How Long Does It Take to Get Rid of Gingivitis?

Gingivitis can be reversible as long as the causes of the early-stage gum disease (gingivitis) are identified, and the person is persistent in improving their oral hygiene and seeking necessary treatment when needed.

Thus the prognosis for gingivitis is best if it is treated in the early stages of the disease. At this stage, the person usually only needs professional dental cleaning at least once a year, and more thorough brushing and flossing to reverse the disease.

Once the bacteria spread to the bones in periodontitis, irreversible changes can start to take place with the loss of attachment of the gums and bone loss.

In conclusion, it is very important to catch and treat gum diseases like gingivitis as early as possible.

What are common types of gum problems?


Above all, the most common gum problem is gingivitis and is found in over 50% of adults. Gingivitis is defined as inflammation of the gums. Signs of gum inflammation include bleeding during tooth-brushing, swollen-looking gums, and red gums. Healthy gums generally appear firm, coral-pink, and do not bleed with stimulation. Gums can appear dark from pigmentation in certain ethnic populations, and this is considered normal.

Gum disease

Similarly, The second most common gum problem is gum disease (periodontal disease, periodontitis). Periodontitis exhibits similar signs to gingivitis except it also results in gum tissue and jawbone loss. The damage of periodontitis is particularly concerning in that the loss of gum tissue and bone loss cannot be recovered. Periodontitis typically progresses over time and may not produce painful symptoms until the disease reaches the later stages of damage. In brief, unfortunately, this explains why gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss.

 Gum recession

For the most part, a common adult gum problem is gum recession. Gum recession is when the root (or cementum) of the tooth becomes exposed as the gum line pulls away from its original attachment. Such as this could be a result of gum disease as the jawbone surrounding the teeth is lost. In short, wherever jawbone is lost, gums will follow, and this exposes the root of the tooth. Together with exposed roots can be sensitive to temperature, are more prone to decay, and can present a cosmetic concern. In addition, other causes for gum recession include teeth grinding, use of chewing tobacco, brushing too aggressively, hereditary weak gums, orthodontic treatment, or trauma.

Abscess of the gum

Another gum problem is a gum abscess (periodontal abscess). It presents as a blister or a bump in the gum that contains pus. Generally, it is caused by a bacterial infection that takes place in a deep gum pocket and causes pain and swelling.

Oral cancer

In short, a less common gum problem is oral cancer. Particularly oral cancer can occur on all soft-tissue structures within the mouth. Together with on the gums, it may appear as a red or white patch or a sore that does not heal.

What Causes Gum Disease?

Generally, a healthy mouth is a host to a complex and active area of bacteria. In fact, the presence of oral bacteria is generally beneficial to the well-being of the mouth. Problems begin when there is a change in the balance of the bacteria in the mouth. In particular oral bacteria are able to adhere to teeth and gums in the form of dental plaque, which is the soft, sticky film that forms on teeth every day. Such as if dental plaque remains for a prolonged period of time, it turns into a hardened calcified deposit called tartar that sticks to teeth near the gums. For the most part, you cannot remove tartar by brushing and flossing. Furthermore, tartar creates an environment for more dental plaque to accumulate. With the overgrowth of dental plaque and buildup of tartar, the balance of oral bacteria in the mouth shifts to unhealthy proportions.

Dental Plaque

With the presence of dental plaque, the gums respond with inflammation. Our body’s immune system response through inflammation is the process that can ultimately lead to loss of gum attachment, or “periodontal ligament” and jawbone deterioration.

A Gum Disease

Other causes of gum problems may involve foreign bodies affecting the gums, such as poorly contoured dental work, or sensitivity to material in dental work. Viral infection can also be a cause of gum disease. In children, gingivostomatitis is a condition that causes symptoms of swelling and sores around the mouth or gums. It may be caused by a bacterial or viral infection or poor oral hygiene.

Generally, certain medications or damage to the salivary glands can cause gum problems by decreasing saliva flow in the mouth, leading to a condition called dry mouth. Among its functions, saliva is essential in helping break down our food for digestion, aiding in oral hygiene, and keeping the mouth tissues from drying out. To summarize diminished saliva flow or complete lack of saliva allows for bacterial growth in the mouth. In turn, tooth decay and gum problems can occur.

In the case of oral cancer, changes at the microscopic level within a cell can occur. Our bodies have mechanisms to destroy this abnormal cell, but sometimes, the cell is able to escape these mechanisms and progress to develop cancer.

What are the risk factors for gum problems?

In the first place, poor dental hygiene practices that allow for dental plaque to build up are directly linked to gum problems. Devices around teeth, such as dental braces (orthodontic treatment), can make it difficult to properly brush and floss around teeth. Additional risk factors to consider are as follows:

  • Smoking: This habit is a strong factor in the progression of gum disease and oral cancer.
  • Genetics: Family history may influence who is more susceptible to gum problems.
  • Diabetes: This systemic disease may cause an individual to have a weaker immune system against gum problems. Other systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis have been linked to gum problems, as well.
  • More than 70% of the population age 65 and older has periodontitis.
  • Poor nutrition: Vitamin or nutrient deficiencies in diet can adversely affect the body’s ability to fight off infections, including those related to the gums.

What are the signs and symptoms of gum problems?

Likewise, Healthy gums should appear coral pink and firm without bleeding. Signs and symptoms of gum inflammation include

  • redness,
  • swelling,
  • bleeding with brushing or flossing
  • bad breath, and pain
  • Gums that bleed and/or feel sore while brushing is an indication of a problem.
  • Receding gums may also be a sign of gum disease. Gums recede as a result of the destruction of the underlying bone surrounding the teeth. Once the bone starts losing, the gums recede and expose the root surface of a tooth.
  • Persistent bad breath can indicate periodontal disease.
  • Bacteria are specific to periodontal disease release volatile sulfur compounds that are often responsible for the symptom of bad breath.

A discoloured area or an ulceration that does not heal within two weeks are signs of a gum problem that could be unrelated to inflammation or periodontitis.

How do orthodontists diagnose gum problems?

A periodic gum exam performed at the dental office measures the spaces between the gum and teeth called “periodontal pockets,” the amount of root that is exposed for each tooth called “gum recession,” and other signs of bone loss. Collectively, these measurements give an indication of the overall health of the gums and what areas are problematic.

Other indicators of gum problems include;

  • the presence of bleeding with measurements,
  • gum redness,
  • gum swelling,
  • bad breath, or
  • a persistent sore or mass that lasts for more than two weeks.

A biopsy is necessary to diagnosis the tissue.

Can gum problems be a sign or symptom of something that can kill you?

Given the fact that gum disease is the leading cause of tooth loss, having healthy gums is certainly something for which we should strive. Loss of teeth can negatively impact an individual in many ways through the loss of nutrition, psychosocial concerns, and self-esteem issues.

Periodontal disease links to several health problems, most notably, heart disease. Inflammation appears to be the key factor that links heart disease to gum problems. Research suggests that having periodontitis increases the risk of heart disease in an individual. People with atherosclerosis are more prone to these bacteria. Those fatty deposits can clog arteries and restrict blood flow. If a blocked artery supports the heart or brain, it can result in a heart attack or stroke.

A discoloured area, lump, or mass that appears to persist for longer than two weeks may be a sign of oral cancer. Early diagnosis by a health care professional is crucial to improve treatment outcomes in this situation.

What types of treatment cure gum disease?

A gum exam performed by a dentist can determine the best way to treat a gum problem. Deep gum pockets may indicate advanced periodontal disease. Periodontal disease treatment can begin at the dental office with a thorough dental cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist. A gum specialist (periodontist) can treat more advanced gum problems that persist after initial treatment.

Gingivitis A Gum Disease

In the case of gingivitis, professional dental cleaning could remove the buildup of tartar and plaque around the teeth. This procedure allows the gums to heal. Additionally, specific oral hygiene instruction and a recommended schedule for routine care are equally important to maintaining gum health.

For periodontal disease, treatment is more involved. Generally, the first step is a deep professional dental cleaning. Such as this removes the tartar deposits and plaque that are deeply sticks in the pockets of the gums. A doctor uses medication to control bacteria infecting the gums. The medications come in the form of antimicrobial (antibacterial) mouthwashes, oral antibiotics, and antibiotics placed directly into the gum pockets.

Gum Disease Surgery

Lastly, there is gum surgery to treat areas that do not respond to scaling and root planning and/or medications. The goal of gum surgery is to remove diseased tissue, preserve the remaining gums and bone, and create an environment that is easy to keep clean. Periodontists perform gum surgeries such as gingivectomy (to trim or recontour gums), connective tissue graft (to strengthen weak areas of the gum line), and pocket reduction (to eliminate deep pockets that trap food debris and bacteria).

Gum recession

Usually, the doctor leaves the gum recession alone unless there is an extensive amount of recession that compromises the health of the tooth or there is a cosmetic concern. (Gum Graft) is a procedure in which tissue from another area in the mouth (such as the roof of the mouth) and surgically grafts onto the area of recession.

Gum abscess

For a gum abscess, a dentist will clear out debris, unhealthy tissue, and any pus that may be present. The dentist Irrigates the area with antimicrobial rinses, or antibiotics directly placed into the pocket. Oral antibiotics may also help to control the infection. Once the abscess disappears, the area is clear for further treatment such as surgery to avoid a reoccurring gum problem.

Gum disease can you treat and cure it at home

Also, home remedies after dental professional care may help soothe sore gums. Make a mouthwash using ¼ teaspoon baking soda, 1/8 teaspoon salt, and 1 cup of warm water. Regularly brushing teeth well and massaging gums at the gum line with fluoride toothpaste can help eliminate dental plaque and debris to promote further healing. Additionally, flossing to reach between teeth is essential to maintain gum health.

Gum (oral) cancer treatment varies based on the stage of the disease. Treatment modalities include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. A doctor mostly uses both the combination of treatment.

What are the complications with gum problems?

For the most part gum problems that go untreated usually progress to more advanced stages depending on the primary problem. For gingivitis and periodontitis, the biggest complication is jawbone deterioration and eventual tooth loss. Untreated, a periodontal abscess will grow and allow bacteria to enter the bloodstream to infect the entire body. Oral cancer that goes undetected will progress and spread.

What is the best way to care for your gums?

The best way to care for gums is to develop a routine of good oral hygiene at home and regular visits to your dental professional. Likewise, seek specific advice about how to properly clean around the teeth. As a general rule, we should brush our teeth twice a day and floss daily. we should take more care if we have dental braces and dental crowns. The dental plaque is often retained around these areas. During pregnancy, hormonal changes make the gums more sensitive and easily prone to inflammation. Good dental hygiene is essential at this time to prevent a quick progression of periodontal problems.

What is the prognosis for gingivitis, oral cancer, and other gum problems?

Gum problems treated in the early stages have the best prognosis, and the conditioning process can be reversed. This is especially true of gingivitis, which is a reversible condition. Conversely, periodontal disease has irreversible effects due to bone loss that can never be regained. Given that periodontal disease is the leading cause of tooth loss, the prognosis can range from fair to hopeless depending on the level of disease present.

For oral cancer, early diagnosis is crucial for the best treatment outcome. The latest data shows that the five-year survival after the diagnosis of oral cancer is 57%. Survival rates are higher for cancers diagnosed in the early stages.

Can you prevent gum problems?

Most gum problems are curable or, at the very least, can control it in the early stage by visiting a dentist. For some individuals with inherited periodontal disease, it can be a lifelong effort to keep the condition in check. Identifying problems at an early stage with self-monitoring and regular dental exams is key to avoiding potentially bigger problems down the line. Finally, good dental care is essential at home and with your routine dental professional visits.

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