Ovarian Cyst: Types, Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention & More

Ovarian Cysts

What is Ovarian Cysts?

When there is an accumulation of fluid in a cyst in ovaries this indicates and Ovarian Cysts. The ovaries are small organs in the pelvis that make female hormones and hold egg cells.

Ovaries are the female reproductive system part, which is located on both sides of the uterus in the lower abdomen. Ovaries produce eggs along with hormones estrogen and progesterone. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs, which is developed in one of the ovaries. In most cases, cysts don’t develop any symptoms and cause no pain. There are various types of cysts such as dermoid cysts, endometrioma cysts, follicles, corpus luteum cysts and polycystic ovary syndrome which can cause infertility in women.

There are different types of cysts, many of which are normal and harmless (benign). Functional cysts, which are not disease-related, occur as a result of ovulation  (the release of an egg from the ovary). Some benign cysts generally shrink over time, usually within 60 days, without specific treatment.

Functional ovarian cysts, which are relatively common, should not be confused with other types of cysts that are disease-related. Conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome and ovarian cancer also involve growths on the ovaries. Tell your healthcare provider if you have any of the symptoms listed in the symptoms section. He or she can determine the type of cyst you have.

What is the cause of Ovarian Cysts?

Cysts commonly don’t have any symptoms and are usually harmless. The basic function of the ovaries is to produce an egg every month, such as ovulation. During this time, a cyst-like structure forms inside the ovary. This is known as a Follicle. The mature follicle fractures when an egg is released during ovulation. The empty follicle leads to the formation of a corpus luteum and, if pregnancy does not arise, the corpus luteum dissolves.

Yet, sometimes, this process does not complete accordingly, leading to the most common type of ovarian cyst which is the functional ovarian cysts. Along with this, cysts can also occur because of reasons such as Endometriosis in which women suffering from endometriosis can flourish a type of ovarian cyst called an endometrioma and Severe pelvic infections which can spread to the ovaries or fallopian tube resulting in the formation of cysts.

What are the symptoms of an ovarian cyst?

Some smaller cysts cause no symptoms. In these cases, you may not even know you have a cyst. Larger cysts may cause the following symptoms:

  • Pelvic pain or a dull ache in your back.
  • A feeling of fullness (bloating) in your lower belly.
  • Pain during intercourse.
  • Painful periods.

Some lengthy symptoms may be linked with a condition called polycystic ovary syndrome. This is a condition that causes irregular periods and other hormone-related problems, including obesity and infertility. Other symptoms of polycystic ovary syndrome include hirsutism (increased growth of body hair) and difficulty losing weight.

Diagnosis of an ovarian cyst

Your healthcare provider will first rule out pregnancy as the cause of your symptoms. He or she then may use the following tests to diagnose an ovarian cyst:

  • A pelvic exam: During this exam, the doctor uses an instrument to widen the vagina, which allows the doctor to examine the vagina, cervix and uterus. The doctor also feels the reproductive organs for any lumps or changes.
  • Blood tests: These tests measures the levels of certain hormones in the blood.
  • Ultrasound: This test uses sound waves to create images of the body’s internal organs. It detect cysts on the ovaries.
  • Laparoscopy: This is a procedure, performed in an operating room, in which the doctor inserts a small device through an incision (cut) in the abdomen. He or she views the reproductive organs and pelvic cavity using the device. Early diagnosis helps in removing the cyst removal.

Can ovarian cysts lead to cancer?

Ovaries are the organ located deep within the pelvis. In a maximum number of cases, cysts don’t develop any kind of pain. But cysts is something that has fluid and sac filled. Fluid, follicle or tumour in the cysts doesn’t mean it lead to cancer. It is a kind of condition which affects almost every woman, ones in their life. But most of it doesn’t develop ovarian cancer.

What are the treatment of Ovarian Cysts?

The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system. They’re located in the lower abdomen on both sides of the uterus. Women have two ovaries that produce both eggs and progesterone and hormones estrogen.

Sometimes, a fluid-filled sac called a cyst will develop on one of the ovaries. Most of the women will grow at least one cyst during their lifespan. In most cases, ovarian cysts are painless and cause no conditions.

Treatment for an ovarian cyst

The doctor may advise treatment to reduce the size or remove the cyst if it doesn’t go away on its own or if it grows further.

  1. Birth control pills: If you have recurring ovarian cysts, the doctor may specify an oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and prevention for the development of new cysts. Oral contraceptives can also decrease your possibilities of ovarian cancer. The possibility of ovarian cancer is higher in postmenopausal women.
  2. Laparoscopy: If your cyst is small in size and results from an imaging test to rule out cancer, the doctor can perform a laparoscopy to surgically remove the cysts. The method involves your doctor making a small incision close to your navel and then implanting a small instrument into your abdomen to remove the cyst.
  3. Laparotomy: If you contain a large cyst, your doctor can surgically remove the cyst through a large incision in your abdomen. apart from this, they will conduct an urgent biopsy, and if they determine that the cyst is cancerous, they may perform a hysterectomy to remove your ovaries and uterus.

What are the post-treatment guidelines for Ovarian Cysts?

Treatment of ovarian cysts depends on various factors, such as the size and type of cyst, the woman’s age and general well being, future pregnancy intentions of the patient. Diagnosis in an early stage the treatment becomes easier. In some cases, ovarian cysts do not require any treatment. In a postmenopausal patient, a repeated simple cyst smaller than 10 cm in size, along with the presence of a normal CA125 value may be followed with serial ultrasonographic examinations.

If the cysts are less than 5 cm in size, no further investigation is necessary and there is no risk. If the size is 5-7 cm, these ovarian cysts detected in premenopausal women are functional and most of the functional cysts will have resolved within 2 months. Therefore, an ultrasound at 6 months is essential, with CA 125 only if a cyst is still there. CA 125 is not essential at present. Non-functional benign cysts usually remain unchanged.

What are the Side effects of Ovarian Cysts treatment ?

Most ovarian cysts are benign and go away on their own without the proper treatment. These cysts cause little if any, symptoms. But in some cases, doctors may discover a cancerous cystic ovarian mass during a periodic examination.

Ruptured cysts, can cause intense pain and bleeds internally. This complication the risk of an infection and can be very dangerous if not treated.

Ovarian torsion is another severe complexity of ovarian cysts treatment. This is when a large cyst causes an ovary to twist or move from its own original state. Blood supply to the ovary is cut off, and if untreated it can cause injury or death to the ovarian tissue. apart from this, exceptional, ovarian torsion reports for nearly 3 percent of emergency gynecologic surgeries.