Causes of Dizziness and Vertigo

The cause of Vertigo is commonly caused by a problem with the way balance works in the inner ear, although it can also be caused by problems in certain parts of the brain. 

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Vertigo

What is Vertigo?

The word vertigo is derived from the Latin vertigo, meaning vertigo or dizziness. People feel very dizzy in Vertigo. There is a lot of pain or imbalance in the brain. During this imbalance, the person suffering from excessive sweating or nausea, vomiting etc. During vertigo, the sufferer starts feeling very weak. Some people are very afraid of heights and going to higher heights, their head starts twitching. Generally, a person with this condition will feel as though their head or the space around them is moving or spinning.

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Cause of vertigo

Causes of vertigo may include benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) – where certain head movements trigger vertigo. Head or neck injury · Brain problems such as stroke or tumour · Certain medications that cause ear damage.

It is not an illness but a symptom. Many different conditions can cause vertigo. Vertigo can happen to anyone, there is no age limit for this, especially in the elderly, vertigo is common in people above 60 years of age.

Symptoms of vertigo

Vertigo is a symptom, but it can lead to or occur alongside other symptoms, too. These may include:

  • balance problems
  • lightheadedness
  • a sense of motion sickness
  • nausea and vomiting
  • ringing in the ear, called tinnitus
  • a feeling of fullness in the ear
  • headaches
  • nystagmus, in which the eyes move uncontrollably, usually from side to side

Causes of Vertigo

Various conditions can lead to vertigo, which usually involves either an imbalance in the inner ear or a problem with the central nervous system (CNS).

Conditions that can commence with vertigo include the following. Cure Vertigo easily details here.

Labyrinthitis

This disorder can happen when an infection causes inflammation of the inner ear labyrinth. Within this area is the vestibulocochlear nerve.

This nerve sends information to the brain about head motion, position, and sound.

Apart from dizziness with vertigo, a person with labyrinthitis may experience hearing loss, tinnitus, headaches, ear pain, and vision changes.

Vestibular neuritis

An infection causes vestibular neuritis, which is inflammation of the vestibular nerve. It is similar to labyrinthitis, but it does not affect a person’s hearing. Vestibular neuritis causes vertigo that may accompany blurred vision, severe nausea, or a feeling of being off balance.

Cholesteatoma

Especially, this noncancerous skin growth develops in the middle ear, usually due to repeated infection. Such as, as it grows behind the eardrum, it can damage the middle ear’s bony structures, leading to hearing loss and dizziness.

Meniere’s Disease

Meniere’s disease occurs in the inner part of the ear, it affects the hearing power and sounds come due to which there is a possibility of dizziness in a few hours. This is due to the fluid flowing inside the ear.

The National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders estimates that 615,000 people in the United States currently have a diagnosis of Ménière’s disease, with doctors diagnosing about 45,500 new cases each year. Cure Vertigo easily details here.

Cause of vertigo is unclear

The exact cause is unclear, but it may stem from blood vessel constriction, a viral infection, or an autoimmune reaction. There may also be a genetic component that means that it runs in some families.

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)

The inner ear contains structures called the otolith organs, which contain fluid and particles of crystals of calcium carbonate.

In BPPV, these crystals become dislodged and fall into the semicircular canals. There, each fallen crystal touches sensory hair cells within the cupula of the semicircular canals during movement.

Acrophobia

The symptom of fear of heights is called acrophobia. This problem arises when there is any obstruction in the ear, brain and nerve pathway of the person.

The brain receives inaccurate information about a person’s position, and spinning dizziness occurs. People typically experience periods of vertigo that last less than 60 seconds, but nausea and other symptoms may also occur.

Some other causes of vertigo

Vertigo can also occur with:

  • migraine headaches
  • a head injury
  • ear surgeryperilymphatic fistula, when inner ear fluid leaks into the middle ear due to a tear in either of the two membranes between the middle ear and inner ear
  • shingles in or around the ear (herpes zoster oticus)otosclerosis, when a middle ear bone growth problem leads to hearing loss
  • syphilis
  • ataxia, which leads to muscle weaknessa stroke or a transient ischemic attack, which people sometimes refer to as a mini stroke
  • cerebellar or brain stem diseaseacoustic neuroma, which is a benign growth that develops on the vestibulocochlear nerve near the inner ear
  • multiple sclerosis

Generally, prolonged bed rest and the use of some medications can also lead to vertigo.

Cause of Vertigo in pregnancy

An increase in the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin may cause dizziness, as well as nausea, that usually gets better by the end of the first trimester. However, as the pregnancy progresses, and the growing uterus crowds other organs, some women find that dizziness gets worse.

During pregnancy, hormonal changes bring about alterations in the inner ear. They proposed that as time goes on, the woman gets used to the new balance in the ear, and the symptoms of nausea and dizziness improve. Changes in fluid characteristics in the inner ear can lead to symptoms such as:

  • vertigo
  • instability with loss of balance
  • tinnitus and hearing difficulties
  • a feeling of ear fullness

A 2010 study examined 82 women during pregnancy. More than half of them reported experiencing dizziness during the first two trimesters, while one-third reported dizziness in the third trimester.

Nausea is common throughout pregnancy, but it tends to reduce as the pregnancy progresses. Many women in the survey linked nausea with dizziness. Balance problems were also common, but these tended to worsen during the second and third trimesters.

In 2017, scientists published researchTrustedSouce involving four case studies. The authors suggested that hormonal changes may lead to BPPV during pregnancy and that estrogen, specifically, may play a role.

Cause of vertigo in being overweight

The worsening of balance problems could be due to the changes in body weight and posture that occur during pregnancy.

Drug treatment may be available for reducing nausea, dizziness, and other vertigo-related symptoms during pregnancy, but a woman should ask her doctor for advice. Some treatments may not be suitable to use at this time.

Is vertigo herediatary?

Vertigo itself is not necessarily hereditary, but it is commonly a symptom of various conditions and syndromes.

Some of these appear to involve specific genetic factors and may run in families. If a person has recurrent vertigo, it may have a hereditary or genetic component.

Scientists are studying to find out the genetic profile of various conditions that involve vertigo. Examples of conditions that can trigger vertigo and appear to involve genetic factors include:

  • familial episodic ataxia
  • migrainous vertigo
  • bilateral vestibular hypofunction
  • familial Ménière ‘s disease

A doctor may ask a person with vertigo about their family medical history.

Vestibular migraine can involve vertigo.

Treatment of vertigo

Especially, some types of vertigo resolve without treatment, but a person may need treatment for an underlying problem.

A doctor may, for example, prescribe antibiotics for a bacterial infection or antiviral drugs for shingles.

Particularly, medications are available that can relieve some symptoms. These drugs include antihistamines and anti-emetics to reduce motion sickness and nausea.

Surgery may be necessary if other treatments are not effective. BPPV and acoustic neuroma are two conditions for which this may be appropriate.

Antihistamines are available over the counter or to purchase online.

Treating Meniere’s Disease

A doctor may prescribe drugs for people with Ménière’s disease. These may include meclizine, glycopyrrolate, or lorazepam, which can help relieve dizziness due to this condition.

Other options include:

  • limiting sodium intake and using diuretic therapy to reduce fluid levels
  • trying pressure pulse treatment, which involves fitting a device to the ear
  • having a doctor inject antibiotics or corticosteroids into the middle ear
  • avoiding caffeine, chocolate, and alcohol and not smoking tobacco

Home remedies

Individuals can take steps at home to help solve vertigo and limit its effects.

Lifestyle changes

Steps that can help reduce the effects of vertigo include:

  • lying still in a quiet, dark room when the spinning is severe
  • sitting down as soon as the feeling of dizziness appears
  • taking extra time to perform movements that may trigger symptoms, such as getting up, looking upward, or turning the head
  • squatting instead of bending over to pick something up
  • using a cane when walking, if necessary
  • sleeping with the head raised on two or more pillows
  • making adaptations in the home
  • turning on lights when getting up at night to help prevent falls

Anyone who experiences vertigo or other types of dizziness should not drive or use a ladder.

Herbal remedies

Some herbal solutions may help improve symptoms. These include:

  • cayenne
  • turmeric
  • ginkgo biloba
  • ginger root
  • Gongjin-dan

There is not enough evidence to confirm that herbal remedies can relieve vertigo. However, a clinical trial is currently underway to investigate the effects of Gongjin-dan.

A 2015 Study trusted Source found that 30 minutes of acupuncture helped reduce symptoms in 60 people who visited an emergency department with dizziness and vertigo. However, more research is necessary to confirm the effectiveness of this treatment method.

People should ask their doctor before using any alternative treatments. They should also see a doctor if vertigo starts suddenly or gets worse, as they may need treatment for an underlying condition.

Exercises

Generally, exercise can help relieve symptoms in some cases.

The Epley maneuver for BPPV

A technique known as the Epley maneuver can help some people with vertigo that stems from BPPV.

The maneuver aims to move calcium carbonate particles from the semicircular canals back to the otolith organs of the vestibule, where they are less likely to cause symptoms in the inner ear.

For BPPV involving the left inner ear:

  1. Sit on a bed and place a pillow behind the body where the shoulders will be on lying down.
  2. Rotate the head 45 degrees to the left.
  3. Keeping the head in position, lie down on the back with the shoulders on the pillow so that the head tilts back slightly and touches the bed. Hold for 30 seconds.
  4. Rotate the head to the right by 90 degrees and hold for 30 seconds.
  5. Turn the body and head, in their current positions, 90 degrees to the right. Hold for 30 seconds.
  6. Slowly sit up and lower the legs on the right-hand side of the bed.
  7. Hold for a couple of minutes while the inner ear makes adjustments.

Types

There are different types of Trusted Souce of vertigo, which varies in their cause.

Peripheral vertigo

About 80% of cases are of this type. Peripheral vertigo usually results from problems in the inner ear.

Tiny organs in the inner ear respond to gravity and the person’s position by sending messages via nerve signals to the brain. This process enables people to keep their balance when they stand up.

Changes to this system can produce vertigo. BPPV and inflammation are common causes. Other causes include Ménière’s disease and acoustic neuroma, among others.

Central vertigo

Central vertigo relates to problems with the CNS. It usually stems from a problem in a part of the brain stem or cerebellum. Approximately 20% of cases are of this type.

Possible causes include vestibular migraine, demyelination, and tumours involving the affected CNS region or regions.

Diagnosis

The doctor will try to find out what is causing the dizziness. They will carry out a physical examination, ask the person how their dizziness makes them feel, and take their medical history.

The doctor may also carry out some simple tests.

Romberg’s test: The doctor will ask the person to stand with their arms by their sides and their feet together and ask them to close their eyes. If the person becomes unsteady on closing their eyes, this could be a sign of a CNS problem.

Fukuda-Unterberger’s test: The doctor will ask the person to march on the spot for 30 seconds with their eyes closed. If they rotate to one side, this may indicate a lesion in the inner ear labyrinth, which could cause peripheral vertigo.

Depending on the results of these and other tests, the doctor may recommend a head CT or MRI scan to obtain more details.

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