Weight Loss Surgeries help a person lose weight. Bariatric surgical procedures cause weight loss by restricting the amount of food intake, causing less absorption of calories, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and malabsorption. They either limit the amount of food you can intake or reduce your ability to absorb nutrition and in some cases both.
Weight loss surgeries work in variable and different ways. This includes restriction, which reduces the number of calories that one can consume by limiting the size of food that the stomach can hold. The other mode is malabsorption, which similarly minimizes the number of calories and consequent nutrients that the body can duly absorb. This is gained by shortening some parts of the intestine.
When this surgery is essential?
This procedure is done when the person has a high risk of potentially life-threatening health issues related to weight gain, such as the following:
Thus this procedure is not for everyone who is obese. And also screening processes are done to see if you are a suitable candidate for this surgery. Many weight loss surgeries are available to patients, but here are five main ones.
Types of weight loss surgeries
Duodenal Switch with Biliopancreatic Diversion
This procedure entails positioning the duodenal much more faraway and further along the ileum. The gall bladder is also removed. For example, this procedure results in very few calories being absorbed by the body from the food consumed. The stomach also secretes very little amounts of hunger-causing hormones, making the individual not feel hungry fast.
Weight Loss Surgeries
The duodenal switch also results in overall health progress by lowering the risk of some illnesses such as cancer after surgery. It can also treat some metabolic problems and even diabetes. Most doctors however avoid it, as it is tough and laboring to perform. It consumes more time and requires extensive follow-up after surgery.
In biological and technical terms, the gastric band is referred to as laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. The procedure entails the creation of a small pouch with the use of a gastric band well placed around the stomach. The pouch can be filled with very little amounts of food, limiting the amount of food that one can eat in order to fill it. In this case one feels full very fast, eliminating the need to consume great amounts of food.
Likewise, the gastric band is fastened after surgery by attaching it to a device placed under the skin, which is at the center of the chest. In order to attain the desired results, the band is tightened severally. Also, this is done to prevent any need for anesthesia by injecting the device with some saltwater with the use of a needle through the skin.
Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty
This procedure is generally considered safer than other bariatric surgeries. Symptoms such as pain and nausea can be observed for several days which can be easily fixed by pain and nausea medicines. For instance, most people fully recover in two to three days. Although this procedure is not a temporary one by it is a procedure that can be reversed. However, as this surgery is quite a new procedure, the long-term effects and risks are unknown.
In this procedure, an extensive part of the stomach is reduced, making it very small in comparison to the way it was prior to the surgery. Just as with the previous surgeries, one feels full very fast thus massively reducing the amount of food that one consumes.
For the most part, the new smaller stomach will secrete very small amounts of hormones that cause hunger, making you not feel hungry as fast as you used to be.
Gastric bypass is also known as Roux-en-y gastric bypass. As a result of the stomach is subdivided into two parts. Thus a small pouch is created at the top of the stomach with the use of surgical staples. Also, the rest of the stomach is bypassed by directly connecting the pouch to the small intestine. Similarly, it hugely reduces the amount of food needed for one to fill full. This ultimately ensures you consume less food, and thus you will absorb very few calories. Your body shall also absorb very few minerals.
Despite this, gastric bypass has a coupling weakness in that if one does not adhere to a very good and strict diet, it could cause dumping syndrome or even possible malnutrition.
Therefore indifferent to other types of surgeries, an intra-gastric balloon is quite temporary, as it is only left in the stomach for a maximum of six months. Your doctor fills the balloon with air and then places it into the stomach with the use of a very narrow tube, which goes down through the mouth. Such as the balloon is inflated upon reaching the stomach. It is also important to note that there exist two types of balloons namely the single and the dual balloon. Hence your choice depends on the size of the stomach plus the results you are looking to achieve.
The previous surgeries all have different advantages and disadvantages. For instance, the duodenal switch is the most useful, as it results in much more weight loss followed by the gastric sleeve and gastric bypass. Gastric balloon only results in 25-30% of the excess body weight after a year compared to duodenal switch, gastric sleeve, and gastric bypass where one loses around 70% of the surplus weight under the same time or duration. It is therefore vital to do some extensive research and doctor consultations before opting for any kind of the highlighted surgeries.
Risks and complication of bariatric surgery
BPD/DS risk factors include the following
- Excessive bleeding
- Adverse reaction to anesthesia
- Blood clots
- Lung or breathing problems
- Leaks in the gastrointestinal system
Long-term risks are:
- Bowel obstruction
- Dumping syndrome
- Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar
- Stomach perforation
Pros and Cons of Biliopancreatic Diversion
Biliopancreatic diversion is very effective and successful when compared to other types of weight-loss surgeries. Also, it produces very long-term results extending to 18 to 24 months after the performance of the surgery. In fact, the surgery ensures that there is the maintenance of weight loss of around 80% of the excess weight even 10 years post-surgery. Such as this prevents any recurrence of future instances of obesity.
Enhanced quality of life after weight loss surgeries
The procedure improves the quality of life, and this can be due to improved mobility. Your fitness after weight loss also tops into a boosted self-esteem and a better sense of living. In addition to this, the surgery helps to alleviate and improve other health issues or illnesses often attributed to obesity. An example is hypertension and diabetes. All these help to improve the quality of your life
Adjustability after weight loss surgeries
The biliopancreatic diversion procedure is adjustable. This means that there is a partial chance of reversing it through the performance of another surgery.
An excellent choice to other weight loss procedures
Biliopancreatic diversion is suitable especially if you have tried other weight loss methods but didn’t succeed. However, it could complete other weight loss methods such as working out.
Weight loss surgeries complications
Among all other weight-loss surgeries, biliopancreatic diversion is the most complicated. However, it is an open surgery, making it very delicate. It is for this reason that the procedure should be done by a professional. Due to its complexity, biliopancreatic diversion happens to be quite difficult. The main reason behind this is that it is performed as an open surgery instead of laparoscopically. Thus it has a death risk of 1 for every 200 surgeries done. Its complexity, therefore, suggests that the risk of death is very high compared to other surgeries.
Apart from causing death, you could be at risk of getting anemia due to a lack of iron. You can also get osteoporosis if you do not take supplements as directed by your doctor.
Extended recovery time
In short, the recovery time for biliopancreatic diversion ranges from 6 to 8 weeks. This could make you take substantial time off work to ensure that you recover properly.
Flatulence and high stool frequency
After a biliopancreatic diversion procedure, you will find yourself visiting the washrooms more than the ordinary person. Flatulence and further diarrhea can also happen spawning from the ingestion of very fatty foods.
How to keep weight off after weight loss surgeries?
Together with the success of Bariatric surgery mainly depends on the behavioral and lifestyle changes that the patient adopts after the surgery. Patients have to strictly follow the diet plan prescribed by the dietitian and also attend behavioral therapy to change their attitudes towards nutrition and exercise.
You have to change your diet evermore as directed by your doctor. You have to adjust your lifestyle entirely.
Diet Before weight-loss surgeries
Your Bariatric surgeon might prescribe a weight loss goal and a plan that you have to gain before the surgery. This weight loss helps in reducing excess fats around the liver as well as the abdomen area reducing the chance of complications. If you do not hit the prescribed weight goal, the doctor might choose to delay the procedure.
Diet plan (Pre-surgery)
The guidelines may vary from person to person and also depend upon the type of surgery:
- Avoid binge eating
- Eliminate high sugar beverages
- Daily multivitamin supplements is a must
- Protein supplements may be necessary
- Should avoid high carbohydrate foods
- Eliminate saturated fats from your diet
Diet Plan (Post Surgery)
The diet plan after the surgery may go on for several stages which would be fixed by your doctor.
Stage 1: Liquid Diet
For the initial days after the surgery, only a few ounces of clear liquids are allowed. After that, there will be graduate changes of which type of liquids can be taken.
- Skimmed milk
- Thin soup and broth
- Decaffeinated tea or coffee
- Unsweetened juice
- Sugar-free gelatin
Stage 2: Pureed diet
Pureed food consists of food of a thick, pudding-like consistency that may be blended at home itself. Spices might irritate the stomach so it would be better to avoid them completely.
Mostly prefer seedless fruits and also avoid fibrous vegetables. Fruits such as bananas, peaches, apricots, pears, pineapples, melons are generally recommended at this stage. The dietician may also prescribe pureed vegetables such as tomato, spinach, carrots, and green beans.
Stage 3: Soft diet
At this phase, the doctor will suggest that you start with soft and easily chewable food. This may include:
- Soft-boiled eggs
- Ground meat
- Cooked whitefish
- Canned fruits
- Cottage cheese
- Ricotta cheese
- Beef (Ground)
- Chicken (Ground)
- Turkey (Ground)
- Scrambled eggs
Stage 4: Stabilization
In this stage, we can reintroduce solid food to our diet. This stage essentially starts only after 2 months. The food should be broken down into small pieces and chewed well as your stomach is smaller. It is better to introduce food slowly so that the tolerance of your stomach can be noted and the diet can be adapted to not cause any discomfort.
Foods to avoid in stage 4:
- Tough meat
- Fried food
- Crunchy food
- Dried food
- Bread products
Guideline for post op diet
After your surgical procedure, you will have to follow certain lifelong guidelines and adapt to your lifestyle. It is best to prepare your meals at home and carry them with you at all times to avoid unhealthy binge eating.
Weight Loss Surgeries
Here are the guidelines you will have to follow lifelong after the procedure.
- Eat and drink slowly and pace yourself at each meal
- Portion control is essential
- Listen to your body if it shows any signs of discomfort
- Eliminate foods rich in saturated fats
- Avoid beverages during meals especially sweetened ones
- Hydrate yourself throughout the day
- Chew food thoroughly and break it down into smaller pieces
Lifestyle changes after weight loss surgeries
Do not start your exercise program immediately after the surgery. Let your body heal and so go slowly. Must do low impact exercises in the initial months. It may include tasks such as walking, swimming, simple yoga, stretching, and deep breathing exercises.
Weight Loss Surgeries
Start strength training and cardio workouts only after consultation with the doctor.
Even simple changes in day to day life can be beneficial such as
- Avoid sitting for long periods of time
- Stretching at work
- Taking stairs instead of the lift